Hand & Wrist Specialty | Florida Orthopaedic Institute
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Hand & Wrist

The hand and wrist consist of dozens of bones, joints, ligaments, tendons, and muscles that need to work together seamlessly in a variety of positions hundreds of times a day. As such, they often require highly specialized medical care when they become injured.

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

Carpal tunnel syndrome is a condition that causes numbness, tingling, weakness and other symptoms in the hand and arm because of pressure on the median nerve in your wrist.

The median nerve and several tendons run from your forearm to your hand through a narrow passageway on the palm side of your wrist called the carpal tunnel. The median nerve controls movement and feeling in your thumb and first three fingers (not your little finger).

Pressure can come from swelling or anything that makes the carpal tunnel smaller such as health problems (hypothyroidism, rheumatoid arthritis, and diabetes), repetitive hand or wrist motions and pregnancy.

Tingling, weakness, numbness, or pain in the fingers or hand are some of the symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome. They most often occur in the thumb, index finger, middle finger, and half of the ring finger. Some people experience pain in their arm between their elbow and their hand.

Proper treatment can relieve the tingling and numbness and restores wrist and hand function, starting with nonsurgical therapies.

Learn more about Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

Solutions for Peripheral Nerve Injuries

Peripheral nerve injuries happen to more than 1.4 million Americans every year, with nearly 900,000 needing surgical intervention. In the past, surgeons have used the patient’s nerves from another part of their body to repair the damage. Now surgeons at Florida Orthopaedic Institute are pioneering nerve repairs with new products from AxoGen. Learn more about how AxoGen’s products are helping with peripheral nerve reconstruction.

Learn more about Nerve Pain Solutions


The terms “wrist fracture” or “broken wrist” can be confusing or unclear because there are many bones in and around the wrist.

The most common type of wrist fracture is a distal radius fracture, which is a break near the wrist end of the long radius bone in the forearm. This fracture usually occurs as the result of a fall onto an outstretched hand.

There are several other possible types of wrist fractures that can occur. The second most common type of wrist fracture is a scaphoid fracture.

In the wrist, there are eight small round bones that sit in two rows, including the scaphoid bone. The scaphoid bone is near the base of the thumb, just above the long bone of the forearm, the radius.

Scaphoid fractures almost always are the result of a fall onto an outstretched hand but can also occur as the result of sports activities or car accidents.

Learn more about wrist fractures

Flexor Tendonitis

The flexor tendon connects the muscles to the bone in your hand. When there is a strain on the tendons flexor tendonitis can occur, making it difficult and painful to bend your thumb or fingers. Sometimes flexor tendonitis can stop hand movement altogether.

Learn more about Flexor Tendonitis

WALANT (Wide Awake Local Anesthesia No Tourniquet)

WALANT (Wide Awake Local Anesthesia No Tourniquet) is an operating technique that uses two medications (lidocaine and epinephrine) for some types of hand and wrist surgeries in a safe and painless manner. This technique eliminates the use of tourniquets and general anesthesia. WALANT has many advantages including no preoperative testing, no costs associated with anesthesia, no need for an IV, and a lower overall cost.

Learn more about WALANT


Even though most of our movements don’t cause problems, minor injuries to the finger, hand, or wrist that cause pain or swelling are common. can develop from everyday wear and tear, injuries, or overuse.

Some of the more common finger, hand, and wrist injuries include bruises, sprains, specific injuries to ligaments (skier’s thumb), injuries to tendons (mallet finger), strains (pulled muscles), broken bones (fractures), crushing injury (leading to Compartment Syndrome and dislocations.

Learn more about Sudden (Acute) Finger, Wrist & Hand Injuries

Ulnar Neuritis

Ulnar neuritis, also known as cubital tunnel syndrome, is an inflammation of the ulnar nerve in the arm that causes numbness or weakness in the hand. The ulnar nerve gives feeling to the little finger and half of the ring finger and is more commonly known as the “funny bone.” The ulnar nerve controls most of the small muscles in the hand that help with delicate movements and some of the bigger muscles in the forearm that help create a strong grip.

Activities that place constant pressure against the ulnar nerve at the elbow or wrist can cause ulnar neuritis. It can also be caused by repetitive motion at the elbow or wrist.

Learn more about Ulnar Neuritis

Targeted Muscle Reinnervation (TMR)

Targeted Muscle Reinnervation (TMR) is a surgical procedure that gives amputees easier, more intuitive prosthesis control. The nerves to spare muscles of an amputated patient are cut and/or de-activated (denervated), then reinnervated with residual nerves of the amputated limb. EMG (Electromyography) signals of the targeted muscle can be used to drive motorized prosthetic devices. The reinnervated muscles serve as biological amplifiers of the amputated nerve motor signals, allowing for better control of sophisticated prosthetic arms.

Learn more about Targeted Muscle Reinnervation (TMR)

Wrist Tendonitis

When a tendon — the thick fibrous cords that attach muscle to bone – is inflamed or irritated, the condition is called tendonitis. It causes pain and tenderness just outside a joint, like the wrist. Tendonitis can occur in any of your tendons.

Wrist tendonitis is a common condition characterized by irritation and inflammation of the wrist joint where many tendons surround the joint. Wrist tendonitis usually affects one of the tendons, but it can also involve two or more. Wrist tendonitis often occurs at points where the tendons cross each other or pass over a bony prominence.

Learn more about Wrist Tendonitis


Wrist sprains can also result from accidents or falls around the home or work. They are also common and painful sports injuries.

Our natural instinct is to put our hands out to break a fall. In doing so, the wrist can get bent back, stretching, twisting, or tearing the ligaments connecting the bones in your wrist and hand. Wrists can also be sprained when there is a direct blow to the wrist.

To learn more about the symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of wrist sprains, click below.

Learn More About Wrist Sprains


Ganglion cysts, also called bible cysts, are noncancerous lump, often on the tendons or joints of wrists and hands. Ganglion cysts are common with more than 200,000 cases in the United States per year.

Ganglion cysts are round, small, and usually painless. They do not spread to other areas. Although rare, they can be painful if they press a nerve. In some cases, the cyst can interfere with joint movement.

The cause of ganglion cysts is unknown. A ganglion cyst often clears on its own. If troublesome, it can be drained or removed.

Learn More About Ganglion Cysts


Also called Dupuytren’s contracture, it is a gradual thickening and tightening of tissue under the skin in the hand. It is fairly common, with over 200,000 cases in the United States every year.

Over time, Dupuytren’s contracture (also known as palmar fibromatosis) can cause one or more fingers to stay bent toward the palm. This can complicate everyday activities, such as placing hands in pockets or shaking hands.

It can last for years or be lifelong and most often affects the ring and pinky fingers.

Learn More About Dupuytren's Disease

Trigger Finger

Trigger finger, also called trigger thumb, is a condition in which a finger gets stuck in a bent position and then snaps straight. In the United States, there are more than 200,000 cases per year.

When the tendon in the affected finger becomes inflamed, trigger finger occurs. It most commonly effects women, people with diabetes or arthritis, and people whose regular activities strain their hands.

Symptoms can include stiffness, a popping or clicking sensation, and tenderness in the affected finger.

Learn More About Trigger Finger


Finger dislocations are joint injuries that happen when finger bones move apart or sideways and out of normal alignment. They can happen when the bones of a finger are moved (dislocated) beyond their normal range of motion.

Finger dislocation is a common injury usually caused by a “jamming” force applied to the end of the finger, or the finger forcefully overextended. Either of these situations, and sometimes a combination of both, can result in a dislocation.

Learn More About Finger Dislocations


Rheumatoid arthritis, also called RA, is a chronic inflammatory disorder affecting many joints, including those in the hand. In rheumatoid arthritis, the body’s immune system attacks its own tissue, affecting joint linings and causing painful swelling. Over time, the inflammation can cause bone erosion and joint deformity.

Rheumatoid arthritis is common, with over 200,000 cases in the United States every year. The condition can’t be cured but treatment can help. Physiotherapy and medication can help slow the disease’s progression. Many cases are managed with a class of medications called anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDS).

Learn More About Rheumatoid Arthritis Of The Hand

Wrist Arthroscopy

Wrist arthroscopy is a minimally invasive technique which can be used for diagnostic purposes as well as for therapeutic interventions. First introduced in 1979, wrist arthroscopy became accepted as diagnostic tool around the mid-1980s.

Wrist arthroscopy utilizes a small fiber optic instrument called an arthroscope that lets the surgeon to see inside the joint, without making large incisions into the muscle and tissue.

Learn More About Wrist Arthroscopy

Basal Joint Surgery

Arthritis of the thumb happens when the thumb joint cartilage (carpometacarpal joint) wears away from the bone. This condition is also known as basal joint arthritis. Normally the cartilage acts as a cushion between the bones of the joint. When it is worn away, the direct contact and friction between the bones causes pain, swelling, decreased strength and limited range of motion.

Basal joint arthritis makes it difficult to grip and hold or twist objects between the thumb and fingers. It can be difficult to performing simple tasks such as turning a doorknob, opening a jar and pinching or gripping an item. Although it may be successfully treated with non-surgical options such as medications, severe cases of basal joint arthritis usually need surgery. Basal joint surgery removes and rebuilds the basal joint.

Learn More About Basal Joint Surgery


A Colles’ fracture is a type of fracture in which the broken end of the radius is bent backwards. Colles’ fractures typically occur from a fall on an outstretched hand, but risk factors also include osteoporosis. These types of fractures are also called broken wrists.

Colles’ fractures are common – about 15% of people have a Colles’ fracture at some point in time. Colles’ fractures occur more commonly in young adults and older people than in children and middle-aged adults, and in more women than men.

The fracture is named after Abraham Colles who first described it in 1814.

Learn More About Colles' Fractures

Florida Orthopaedic Institute’s Hand & Wrist center features the Bay Area’s greatest number of years of combined experience in hand and microvascular surgery. Our fellowship-trained microvascular surgeons provide the capability for complex reconstruction, as well as free tissue transfer and limb replantation.

Hand & Wrist

Dr. Stone Talks About Texting Thumb

Dr. Stone talks to Fox 13 news about texting thumb, a condition he says can have your thumb running marathons every day. According to Dr. Stone, one pound of stress at the tip of your thumb multiplies dramatically as it travels up the bones, muscles, ligaments, and tendons of your arm.

Vicki Kasper, Distal Radius Wrist Fracture Testimonial

August 7, 2018

Briant Cummings, Hand Replant Testimonial

April 4, 2018

Jody Stumpe, Carpal Tunnel Surgery Testimonial

October 24, 2017

Doctor Profile: Dr. Alfred V. Hess, M.D.

February 2, 2017

Doctor Profile: Dr. Jason A. Nydick

January 16, 2017

Doctor Profile: Dr. M. Ellen Beatty

October 27, 2016

Doctor Profile: Dr. Michael J. Garcia

October 27, 2016

Doctor Profile: Dr. Jeffrey D. Stone

October 27, 2016

Ireland Nugent Visits FOI to Remove Her Cast

May 10, 2016

Dr. Jeffrey Stone Talks About “Texting Thumb” on FOX 13

May 10, 2016

Doctor Profile: Dr. Ioannis Pappou

May 6, 2016

Common Conditions

  • Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS)
  • Colles Fractures

Common Procedures

  • Basal Joint Surgery
  • Endoscopic Carpal Tunnel Release
  • Endoscopic Carpal Tunnel Release (LINS)
  • Open Carpal Tunnel Release Surgery

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